Prepared as a chapter for From Repression to Roundtable: Instability and the Resurgence of Solidarity in Poland, Trond Gilberg and Michael Bernhard. eds. The ftrst version was presented at the conference on "Instability in Poland: Its Sources and Ramifications," Pennsylvania State University, April 6·8, 1989. My gratitude goes ftrst of all to Michael Bernhard and Grzegorz Elden for their incisive and thorough criticisms of earlier versions of this paper. I have also beneftted from comments by Michael Kennedy. Gale Stokes, and Ivan Volgyes. Special thanks to Robin Cordell, my research assistant. who tirelessly and creatively pursued all bibliographic clues that came our way.