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A Commercial (Neo)Colony? The Role of the Merchant Lobby in France's Recognition of Haitian Independence

What role did French merchants play in recognizing Haiti's independence? "In 1825, French officials saw the indemnity as a bone they threw to former colonists while they pursued their commercial empire," says Prof. Mary D. Lewis in her recent article in Age of Revolution.

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A Commercial (Neo)Colony? The Role of the Merchant Lobby in France's Recognition of Haitian Independence

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"This is not just a European story. It is a story about the global balance of power." – Professor Charles Maier

“What's happened in the wake of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is essentially an acceleration towards the common goals of the EU and of European integration as many barriers to security integration for Europe have fallen aside in reaction to Russian aggression." – Professor Mai'a Cross

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